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POCKET英语语法19-23

这是崔荣容老师的POCKET英语语法的学习笔记。18年7月24日。今天第5次课。学习了第19课到第23课。本次讲的是时态。动词的用法最丰富,下面是动词常用的时态。第三人称单说的缩写到底是三单还是单三呢?24日更新19课,太困了。27日凌晨更新完时态。

第19课 现在时

  1. 一般现在时

    • 一般现在时,表示通常性、规律性、习惯性的状态或动作,主语是三单时,动词有三单的变化,主语是非三单时,动词为原型。

      1. They often get up at 7.
      2. he often gets up at 7.
    • 一般现在时动词的三单变化

      1. 在动词结尾直接加 -s play--plays.
      2. 以字母s, x, ch, o 结尾的动词加 -es , guess--guesses
      3. 以辅音字母+y 结尾的动词,先变y为i, 再加 -es, study--studies
    • 一般现在时的否定句和疑问句用 do, does 帮助构成

      1. He donesn't like the car.
      2. does he like the car? yes, he does / no, he doesn't
  2. 现在进行时

    • 表示正在进行或发生的动作,句子中通常有now等时间副词,基本构成: be + doing

      1. They are watching TV.
      2. he is watching TV.
      3. i am watching TV.
    • 变化规则

      1. 一般情况下,直接加 ing , work--working
      2. 动词以不发音的-e结尾,去e加ing, take--taking
      3. 重读闭音节的动词,双写词尾加-ing, cut--cutting
      4. 以 -ie结尾的动词,变y再加ing, lie--lying
    • 现在进行时变否定和疑问句时,将be动词否定或者提前即可。

      1. They aren't watching TV. Are they watching TV?
      2. he isn't watching TV. Is he watching TV?
      3. Am I watching TV. yes, you are / no,you aren't
  3. 练习

    1. He works very late everyday. 一般现在时三单形式
    2. Do you study English yourself? -yes, I do. 一般现在时疑问句
    3. They are playing soccer now. 现在进行时

第20课 过去时

  1. 一般过去时,

    • 表示过去某个时间里,发生的动作或状态,过去习惯性,经常性的行为。基本结构: 主语+动词过去式+其他

      1. He worked very hard last night.
      2. They came here by car.
    • 动词过去时:

      1. 一般动词在后面加ed,还有一些不规则动词不规则变化。play--played, come--came
      2. 在以字母e结尾的动词后,只加 -d。 like--liked
      3. 在以辅音+y 结尾的动词后,改y为i,再加 -ed。supply--supplied
      4. 以重读闭音节结尾,且结尾只有一个辅音字母的动词后,双写最后一个辅音字母,再加 -ed。 plan-> planned
  2. 过去进行时

    • 表示在过去某一时刻或某一时段、时间内进行或是发生的动作,基本机构: was/ were + doing, 即: be动词+ 动词ing 形式

      1. They were waiting for you.
      2. He Was talking with his friends just now.
  3. 练习

    1. They went swimming yesterday.
    2. Sam was watching TV at 7 last night.

第21课 将来时

一般将来时:表示将来某一时刻的动作或章太,或将来某一段时间内经常发生的动作或状态,常常和表示将来的时间状语连用。如: tomorrow, next week, in the furture.

  1. will + 动词原形 或 shall + 动词原形

    1. They will go to BJ by ship tomorrow.
    2. We shall leave for BJ next month.
  2. "be going to + 动词原形", 用来表示近期或实现考虑过的,将要发生的动作,以及已经有迹象表明必将发生某事,意思为 “打算,就要”。

    1. They are going to play football this afternoon.
    2. She is going to learn French next year.
  3. be + doing ,表示位置转移的动词, 如: go, come, leave, start, arrive.可以用现在进行时表示将来时态. 即 be + 这些动词的ing形式

    1. They are arriving for Japan.
    2. She is arriving tomorrow.
  4. 练习

    1. They are coming here soon.
    2. Sam is going to learn Chinese next month .(will learn也可以)
    3. Peter and mike will finish the job tomorrow morning.

第22课 完成时

  1. 现在完成时,have/has + 动词过去式, 表示动作过去发生,已经完成,对现在造成影响或后果,动作可能还会持续,可使用的时间状语为: already(已经), yet(还).

    1. They have already arrived in BJ.
    2. She has played soccer for 3 hours.
    3. She hasn't finished the homework yet.
  2. 过去完成时, had + 动词过去式,表示剧中的动作发生在过去之前,即过去的过去,已经完成,对过去造成了一定影响或后果。

    1. They had arrived in BJ.
    2. She had played soccer for 3 hours.
    3. They hadn't finished the work yet.
    4. She had cleaned the room before I arrived. 在我到达之前,他已经打扫了房间。 我打到发生在过去,他打扫发生在我达到的过去,也就是过去的过去。
  3. 练习

    1. He has stopped the car outside.
    2. She hasn't been to BJ yet.
    3. Have they planned to stay here?

英语常见时态,一共16种,这里只给出了常见的12种

英语常见时态

第23课 动词的用法

  • 动词分为四类:
  1. 实意动词 notional verb
  2. 系动词 link verb 连系动作
  3. 助动词 auxiliary verb 帮助构成句子成分
  4. 情态动词 modal verb “愿意,需要” 等等
  • 总结
  1. 动词有数量时态的变化。数量指单复数,时态通常有:现在,过去和将来等时态。
  2. 根据动作进行的状态可分为:一般时,进行时,完成时。
  3. 使用动词时,通常将以上两点结合,如:一般现在时。通常将时态、状态、数量结合使用。
  4. 例如:

    • He goes to school everyday.
    • He went to hospital last night.
  • 动词变化总结
动词原形单三现在分词过去式过去分词
playplaysplayingplayedplayed
havehashavinghadhad
gogoesgoingwentgone

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